Accepted at 7:10 a.m. Feb, 13, 2024 by Tahseen
Author: Tahseen
Related Note: 1542317772683 1
Rationale for change


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Parkinson-Plus Syndromes
TypeDementia with Lewy bodiesMultiple system atrophy (MSA)Progressive supranuclear palsyCorticobasal degeneration (CBD)
DefinitionParkinsonism and dementia <1 year apartNeurodegeneration of the substantia nigraNeurodegeration of the midbrain-diencephalic junction, cerebellum, and cortex (mildly)Neurodegeneration of cortex and basal ganglia
Important Clinical SignsDementia, Parkinsonism, Visual hallucinationsMotor abnormalities, Autonomic dysfunction (incontinence, orthostatic hypotension), cerebellar dysfunctionVertical gaze palsy (esp downward gaze), Postural instability (↑ falls)Alien limb phenomenon (can't recognize own limb), asymmetric motor apraxia
Pathology/ImagingLewy bodies in cortexHot cross bun sign on MRIHummingbird sign on MRIAsymmetric cortical atrophy + bilateral basal ganglia atrophy
Image description: "In contrast to PSP, we don't see the humming bird sign, because the midbrain has a normal convex upper border.
The so-called 'hot cross bun sign', which is a result of pontine hyperintensity, is typical for MSA-C."
Image(s) provided by Used with permission.
Lecture Notes
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Missed Questions
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Boards and Beyond
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First Aid
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Sketchy 2
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Sketchy Extra
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Additional Resources
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!AK_UpdateTags::^temporary::ImageFix::18::done #AK_Original_Decks::Step_2::Cheesy_Dorian_(M3) #AK_Step2_v12::!Shelf::Psych::no_dupes !AK_UpdateTags::Table::Parkinson_Plus_Overview #AK_Step2_v12::#UWorld::4130 #AK_Step2_v12::!Shelf::#Cards_AnKing_Did::5psych #AK_Step2_v12::!Shelf::Psych::no_dupes::only_step2 AnkiHub_ImageReady::Extra #AK_Step2_v12::#OME_banner AnkiHub_ImageReady::Text !AK_UpdateTags::Step2decks::Cheesy-Dorian-(M3)::Psychiatry #AK_Step2_v12::#AMBOSS #AK_Step2_v12::#Subjects::Neurology::11_Degenerative_Disorders::Parkinson_Disease::Multiple_System_Atrophy_Shy_Drager_Syndrome #AK_Step2_v12::#AMBOSS::PSYCH