Accepted at 2:49 p.m. May, 14, 2024 by Ahmed7
Bulk Suggestion Bulk ID: joshuamb/05.14.24-02:14PM
Author: joshuamb
Co-authors: DillingerMed
Related Note: 1515811336226
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Patients with hypertensive retinopathy will present on fundoscopy with {{c3::flame}}-shaped retinal hemorrhages, arteriovenous nicking, microaneurysms, macular {{c1::star}}, and {{c2::cotton-wool}} spots
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- Severe hypertension in retinal precapillary arterioles causes endothelial disruption, leakage of plasma into arteriolar wall, and fibrinous necrosis
- Necrotic vessels can then bleed into nerve fiber layers causing the flame shaped hemorrhages

- Fundus pictures of malignant hypertensive retinopathy with bilateral disc edema, peripapillary splinter hemorrhages, cotton wool spots, vascular tortuosity, macular star, venous engorgement

Photo Credit: Mishra et al., CC BY 4.0, via Cureus

Fundoscopic findingsDiabeticHypertensive
HemorrhagesMultipleFew
RetinaWetDry
ExudatesMultipleRare
EdemaExtensiveRare
Flame shaped HemorrhagesRareCommon
Cotton Wool spotsFewMultiple
Visually abnormal blood vessels in retinaVeinsArteries
Lecture Notes
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Missed Questions
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Pathoma
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Boards and Beyond
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First Aid
Macular star pointed out by red arrow, cotton wool spots pointed out by blue arrow
Sketchy Extra
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Picmonic
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Pixorize
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Physeo
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OME

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Changed Tags
#AK_Step1_v12::#SketchyPath::02_Vascular::02_Hypertension::01_Hypertension
#AK_Step1_v12::#Bootcamp::Endocrinology::07_Pancreas::05_Diabetic_Complications #AK_Step1_v12::^Other::^HighYield::5-LowYield #AK_Original_Decks::Step_1::Zanki_Step_Decks::Zanki_Neurology::Neuro_Misc #AK_Step1_v12::#FirstAid::12_Neuro_&_Special_Senses::05_Ophthalmology::11_Hypertensive_Retinopathy #AK_Step1_v12::#SketchyPath::07_Endocrine::03_Diabetes::03_Diabetes_Mellitus:_Chronic_Complications #AK_Step1_v12::#Bootcamp::Cardiology::26_Hypertension::04_Hypertensive_End-Organ_Disease #AK_Step1_v12::#OME::04_Organ_Systems::08_Neuroscience::04_Special_Senses::03_The_Eye_Eye_Pathologies #AK_Step1_v12::#UWorld::Step::11675 !AK_UpdateTags::Table::Retinopathy_Features #AK_Step1_v12::#OME::Clinical::04_Organ_Systems::08_Neuroscience::04_Special_Senses::03_The_Eye_Eye_Pathologies #AK_Step1_v12::#FirstAid::08_Endocrine::04_Pathology::15_Diabetes_Mellitus AnkiHub_ImageReady::Extra #AK_Step1_v12::^Other::^EXPN::BGadd #AK_Step1_v12::#FirstAid::08_Endocrine::04_Pathology::15_Diabetes_Mellitus::Complications::Osmotic_Damage::Retinopathy #AK_Step2_v12::#SketchyIM::01_Cardiology::05_Blood_Pressure::01_HTN_SOA #PANCE::CARDIO::hypertension #AK_Step1_v12::^Other::^FA_Updates::FA2018 #AK_Step1_v12::^Systems::Neuro::BGadds AnkiHub_ImageReady::Text #PANCE::EOR::IM #PANCE::EENT::Eye #AK_Step1_v12::#UWorld::COMLEX::25612 !AK_UpdateTags::^temporary::ImageFix::15::done #AK_Step1_v12::#Physeo::11_Pathology::01_Cardiac_Pathology::06_Myocardial_Infarction !AK_UpdateTags::Step1decks::Zanki-Step-Decks::Zanki-Neurology::Neuro-Misc